Friday, January 7, 2011
Another Real-Life Incident
I was on-shift the night an industrial hazardous waste plant burst into flames. I obviously have all the inside information, but it won’t be released to the public, so I’m sorry to say I can’t share most of it with you. What I can say – inside the facility, stored toxic material ignited. The fire quickly grew to a plume of smoke then the entire facility erupted into a fireball with several rapid fire explosions. This swift and extreme domino of events occurred simply because the burning toxic chemicals were stored right next to oxygen cylinders, and oxygen feeds fire. You guessed it, properly stored O2 is essential.
The reverse 911 system was activated – recorded messages called all nearby residents, warning them to evacuate. View the photos included here – it was an intense explosion and the burning toxic chemicals created a massive haz-mat situation. The chemicals involved in that explosion react negatively when mixed with water, so we were forced to allow the fire to burn itself out. Two days post the onset of the incident, a foam application extinguished the remaining flames.
Even though this makes for boring fiction, emergency agencies that night proved pre-planning and inter-agency training and execution results in excellent emergency incident response outcome. My crew along with many other emergency crews, successfully worked the potentially deadly incident – no loss of life and only minor exposure issues occurred. But think of the endless possible dramas that could’ve happened.
Thank you in advance for reading and for your participation and comments. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to ask. Photos are courtesy of Apex Fire Department.
Wednesday, January 5, 2011
A Real-life Haz-Mat Incident
January 6, 2005 in
Graniteville, South Carolina in , a railroad engineer left his train for the night to sleep at a hotel in town. Before leaving his train, he failed to properly reline the railroad switch for mainline operations; meaning, he simply forgot to change the rails on the track. Changing the rails would’ve closed off the track where his train was parked, successfully forcing an incoming train to veer-off onto another track and pass the parked train. Aiken County
In the middle of the night, an incoming train – planning to pass the town – collided with that parked train, which contained chlorine gas, sodium hydroxide, and cresol. The collision derailed both locomotives and many freight cars. The parked-train’s tank car – containing ninety tons of chlorine – ruptured, releasing sixty tons of the gas, creating a haz-mat spill, including polluting a creek.
A true haz-mat team – trained, experienced, and equipped for such a catastrophic event – is not located in small-town Graniteville. Only a few of Graniteville’s emergency crews are trained in haz-mat, and their training, expertise, and equipment is insufficient for an incident of this magnitude.
Inside the Avondale Mills plant near the crash site, a man in respiratory distress called 911. From a dispatcher’s viewpoint, this situation is heart-wrenching Even if rescue crews could’ve safely entered the area to extricate the man, it would’ve been pointless due to his immediate exposure to chlorine. He was suffering bronchial chlorine burns, and he died a painful death while on the phone with the 911-dispatcher. For haz-mat training purposes, I listened to that chilling 911-Call. Overwhelmed in every way, that dispatcher could only listen as this man gasped his last breaths. Understandably, she had no words of comfort to offer him. That gave me passion to become a 911-dispatcher once I’m too old to run 911-Calls on an ambulance. When that man asked the dispatcher – “Please, don’t hang up; I don’t want to be alone.” I would’ve spoken with him about his family and his passions in life in order to get him as relaxed as possible. I would’ve talked about God and offered to pray with him. Often when people suspect their death is imminent, they suddenly forget all about being atheist, agnostic, stumbling in their faith, or whatever else, and reach for God.
Due to this haz-mat incident, nine people died, 250 were treated for chlorine exposure, and 5,400 residents within a mile radius of the crash site were forced to evacuate for nearly two weeks while haz-mat teams and clean-up crews decontaminated the area.
Think of the fictional characterization possibilities within this tragedy:
1) Plagued by guilt, the train engineer is pushed over the edge by predisposition to mental illness, and becomes a murderous psychotic (an example of a villain in one of my books). What similar characters could you develop? To be honest, though, my heart goes out to that train engineer. My greatest fear in life is making an unintentional mistake as an EMT, resulting in a patient’s death.
2) The 911-dispatcher: For fictional purposes, let’s suppose it was this dispatcher’s first day alone (no longer training) on the job that horrible night in early 2005, and she resigned, making her first day also her last. Think about the baggage she would carry for years to come. In addition, what if she was already in a severe financial bind and now being jobless she’s in dire straits? She’d make a likable and fascinating main character.
3) Me, the future 911-dispatcher – what if a character had aspirations to be an amazing dispatcher but fails miserably? What if he/she is unable to handle the stress of the work and is then lost in life on where to head career-wise? Another idea for a terrific main character.
Monday, January 3, 2011
We're going to start the New Year off with a bang. Nothing can complicate a story more than a disaster hitting the town in your novel. What would a realistic response look like from the EMS community? There's no one better to talk about disasters than an EMS professional. Dianna's back this month with a three part series on disaster response.
Worst Possible Haz-Mat Situations
In a hazardous-material situation, a small town can easily and rapidly become overwhelmed and thus unable to efficiently handle the crisis at hand due to their limited resources. Below is a list of some additional factors beyond “the town is small” that would heighten the chaos, and for writers, would create solid fictional conflict.
Scenario: Traveling at high speeds, two tanker trucks collide; both roll-over. One truck is an atmospheric pressure tank; the other is a cryogenic liquid tank.
Additional possible factors….
The accident occurs:
1) Near a school during school hours
2) Near a stadium filled with spectators and athletes/performers
3) Near a power plant
4) Near a hazardous waste facility
5) Near the town’s landfill (landfills contain countless haz-mats)
6) Near the town’s water treatment plant
7) Near the town’s only
8) Near the town’s only hospital
9) Near the town’s only fire department
10) Near the town’s only police department
11) During rush hour traffic
12) During a storm
13) At 3am
14) The closest haz-mat team is four hours away
In all of the ten “near” cases above, assume those buildings/areas are contaminated by hazardous material spills from both trucks. Haz-mats are often airborne (so air vapors), which are the most deadly simply because air vapors are invisible – they travel quickly, through most any material (including ventilation systems), and without warning; plus they’re next to impossible to contain. Sometimes an unusual cloud or smell is detected, but obviously that warning comes concurrent of the smell and/or cloud discovery, so those individuals in or near the hot zone are already exposed. Keeping safe distance from the hot zone is the only way to eliminate exposure.
Minimum safe distances depend on the chemicals of the hazardous materials present, but an example of an initial minimum safe distance is: 1,000 feet downwind, 500 feet upwind, 330 feet complete radius. Avoid downwind areas entirely and stay upwind. Clearly, continuous monitoring of wind changes is vital.
What additional scenarios and additional factors can you think of?